Vessel/Tank Insulation

Types — The four basic types of thermal insulating material are: fibrous, cellular, granular, and reflective. These materials differ in many characteristics. Refer to Fig. 6-15 for a description of these materials and typical conductivity values and principal properties of common industrial insulations. Uses — Principal uses of insulation are for personnel protection, process temperature […]

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Vessel/Tank Protective Coatings

Internal — Use of internal coatings is primarily to protect the inside surface of the tank against corrosion while also protecting the stored contents from contamination. Consideration must always be given to such factors as the type of product being stored, type of coating available, type of surface to be coated, surface preparation, compatibility of […]

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Vessel/Tank Materials

Metallic — Shop welded, field welded, and bolted storage tanks are customarily fabricated from mild quality carbon steel. Most common for welded tanks are A-36 structural steel and A-283 grade “C” structural quality carbon steel. Sheet gauge steels for bolted tanks are of commercial quality having a minimum tensile strength of 52,000 psi. A-612, A-515, […]

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Full Containment Tank

A double tank designed and constructed so that both the inner tank and the outer tank are capable of independently containing the refrigerated liquid stored. The outer tank or wall should be 3 feet to 6 feet distant from the inner tank. The inner tank contains the refrigerated liquid under normal operating conditions. The outer […]

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Double Containment Tank

A double tank designed and constructed so that both the inner tank and the outer tank are capable of independently containing the refrigerated liquid stored. To minimize the pool of escaping liquid, the outer tank or wall is located at a distance not exceeding 6 m from the inner tank. The inner tank contains the […]

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Single Containment Tank

Either a single tank or a tank comprising an inner tank and an outer container designed and constructed so that only the inner tank is required to meet the low temperature ductility requirements for storage of the product. The outer container (if any) of a single containment storage tank is primarily for the retention and […]

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Refrigerated Storage

The decision to use refrigerated storage in lieu of pressurized storage is generally a function of the volume of the liquid to be stored, the fill rate, the physical and thermodynamic properties of the liquid to be stored, and the capital investment and operating expenses of each type of system. The parameters involved in selecting […]

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Underground Storage

Underground storage is most advantageous when large volumes are to be stored. Underground storage is especially advantageous for high vapor pressure products. Types of underground storage are: (1) caverns constructed in salt by solution mining or conventional mining, (2) caverns constructed in nonporous rock by conventional mining, and (3) caverns developed by conversion of depleted […]

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Above Ground Storages

For operating pressures above 15 psig, design and fabrication are governed by the ASME Code, Section VIII. Spheres — Spherical shaped storage tanks are generally used for storing products at pressures above 5 psig. Spheroids — A spheroidal tank is essentially spherical in shape except that it is somewhat flattened. Hemispheroidal tanks have cylindrical shells […]

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Storage Classification

Atmospheric — Atmospheric pressure tanks are designed and equipped for storage of contents at atmospheric pressure. This category usually employs tanks of vertical cylindrical configuration that range in size from small shop welded to large field erected tanks. Bolted tanks, and occasionally rectangular welded tanks, are also used for atmospheric storage service. Low Pressure (0 […]

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